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Shoulder

Normal Anatomy of the Shoulder Joint

The shoulder is the most flexible joint in the body making it the most susceptible to instability and injury. It is a ‘ball-and-socket’ joint. A ‘ball’ at the top of the upper arm bone, humerus, fits neatly into a ‘socket’, called the glenoid, which is part of the shoulder blade, scapula.

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Rotator Cuff Tear

The rotator cuff is a group of tendons in the shoulder joint that cover and provide support to the shoulder joint, enabling wider range of motion. A tear in the rotator cuff is one of the most common causes of shoulder pain in middle aged adults and older individuals.

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Shoulder Impingement

Various supporting structures aid in the smooth movement of the shoulder joint. The joint is held together and stabilized by a group of tendons called the rotator cuff. A fluid-filled sac called a bursa, located above the rotator cuff, helps in the frictionless movement of the shoulder.

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SLAP Tears

The shoulder joint is a ball and socket joint. A ‘ball’ at the top of the upper arm bone (the humerus) fits neatly into a ‘socket’, called the glenoid, which is part of the shoulder blade (scapula).

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Arthritis of the Shoulder

The term arthritis literally means inflammation of a joint, but is generally used to describe any condition in which there is damage to the cartilage. Damage of the cartilage in the shoulder joint causes shoulder arthritis.

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Frozen Shoulder

Frozen shoulder is a painful shoulder condition that limits movement and causes stiffness in the joint. It is also called adhesive capsulitis and may progress to the state where you may find it very hard to move your arm.

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Shoulder Instability

Shoulder instability is a chronic condition that causes frequent dislocations of the shoulder joint. A dislocation occurs when the end of the humerus (the ball portion) partially or completely dislocates from the glenoid (the socket portion) of the shoulder.

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Shoulder Separation

Acromioclavicular joint (AC joint) dislocation or shoulder separation is one of the most common injuries of the upper arm. It commonly occurs in athletic young patients and results from a fall directly onto the point of the shoulder.

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Shoulder Joint Tear

The shoulder joint is a “ball and socket” joint that enables the smooth gliding and thereby the movements of arms. However it is inherently unstable because of the shallow socket.

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Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

The thoracic outlet is a small passageway leading from the base of the neck to the armpit and arm. This small area contains many blood vessels, nerves and muscle. When this passageway becomes compressed the condition is termed as thoracic outlet syndrome.

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Dislocated Shoulder

Playing more overhead sports activities and repeated use of shoulder at workplace may lead to sliding of the upper arm bone, the ball portion, from the glenoid–the socket portion of the shoulder.

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Shoulder Fracture (proximal humerus fracture)

Humerus is the upper arm bone and it forms two joints —shoulder joint and elbow joint. The proximal humerus is the upper end of arm bone that forms shoulder joint. Fractures of proximal humerus are common in elderly individuals suffering from osteoporosis.

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Clavicle Fracture (Broken Collarbone)

Clavicle fracture or broken collarbone is a very common injury associated with contact sports such as football and martial arts, as well as impact sports such as motor racing. A direct blow over the shoulder, fall on an outstretched arm or motor vehicle accident may also cause the clavicle bone to break.

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Fracture of the Shoulder Blade (Scapula)

The scapula (shoulder blade) is a flat, triangular bone providing attachment to the muscles of the back, neck, chest and arm. The scapula has a body, neck and spine portion.

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Shoulder Joint Replacement

Shoulder joint replacement is a surgical procedure performed to replace a damaged shoulder joint with artificial implants. It is usually performed to relieve shoulder pain when the joint is severely damaged by osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, post-traumatic arthritis, rotator cuff tear arthropathy, avascular necrosis (tissue death), fracture and failed former shoulder replacement surgery.

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Partial Shoulder Replacement

Partial shoulder replacement, also called shoulder hemiarthroplasty is a surgical procedure during which the upper bone in the arm (humerus) is replaced with a prosthetic metal implant, whereas the other half of the shoulder joint (glenoid or socket) is left intact.

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Conventional Shoulder Replacement

The term arthritis literally means inflammation of a joint, but is generally used to describe any condition in which there is damage to the cartilage. Damage of the cartilage in the shoulder joint causes shoulder arthritis. In an arthritic shoulder

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Reverse Shoulder Replacement

Reverse total shoulder replacement, is an advanced surgical technique specifically designed for rotator cuff tear arthropathy, a condition where the patient suffers from both shoulder arthritis and a rotator cuff tear.

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Shoulder Reconstruction

Shoulder reconstruction is a surgical procedure performed in patients with shoulder instability to improve stability, restore the function and prevent recurrent dislocations of the shoulder joint.

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Shoulder Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic and surgical procedure performed for joint problems. Shoulder arthroscopy is performed using a pencil-sized instrument called an Arthroscope.

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